Brain Tumor Surgery in India
The sudden abnormal growth of cells in the brain is called as brain tumor. Brain tumors are either cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign) but in both cases it has to be surgically removed. Brain tumor can directly form in a part of the brain also known as primary brain tumors, or can even be formed in some other part of the body (secondary or metastatic brain tumor) and then spread to the brain.
The speed with which the brain tumor grows and spread to other parts can greatly vary. How it will affect the functionalities of the nervous system can be only detected by analyzing the location and growth rate of the tumor. Treatment method for brain tumor depends on the type, size and location of the tumor.
Visibility and extremity of symptoms depend on the size, growth and as well as location of the tumor. Usual signs and symptoms of brain tumor are –
- Sudden new onset of headaches or changes in the earlier headache pattern.
- Headaches that increase in severity and occurrence.
- Nausea and vomiting without any explainable reason.
- Various vision problems such as- double vision, blurred vision or loss of peripheral vision.
- Gradually losing sensation in an arm or leg.
- Difficulty in balancing the body.
- Speech difficulties.
- Confusion in identifying the things.
- Changes in behavior or personality.
- Sudden case of seizures.
- Problem in hearing.
Types of Brain Tumor
Brain tumor that directly forms in the brain is known as primary brain tumor. There are many types of primary brain tumors and are termed according to the cells that are involved in the formation of it. Some of the examples of primary brain tumors are –
Gliomas – These tumors form in the spinal cord or brain. Some of the types of Gliomas brain tumor are- ependymomas, astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas, glioblastomas and oligodendrogliomas.
Meningiomas – This type of tumor originates from the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. These types of tumors are mostly non-cancerous.
Acoustic neuromas – These are the type of benign tumors that form on the nerves that are connected from the inner ear to the brain and are responsible for controlling balance and hearing functionalities.
Pituitary adenomas – As the name goes, these tumors are formed in the pituitary gland that are at the base of the brain and are mostly benign in nature.
Medulloblastomas – This type of brain tumor is most commonly found in children. This tumor begins to form in the lower part of the brain and then further spreads to the spinal fluid.
- Craniopharyngiomas – These are very rare tumors and are non-cancerous in nature. They are formed in the pituitary gland of the brains, and with the gradual growth these tumors can affect the other structures that surround the brain.
Cancer that forms in the other part of the body and then spreads to the brain –
Tumors that form in the other parts of the body are known as secondary or metastatic tumor. It can be mostly found in the people who have already got an existing history of cancer. But in certain rare cases it can even develop as the first sign of cancer in the body.
Any cancer that forms in the body can further spread to the brain but the most common ones are –
- Colon cancer
- Breast cancer
- Kidney cancer
- Lung cancer
What Are The Diagnostic Criteria’s?
If it is suspected that the person is suffering with brain tumor then he/she has to go through the following diagnostic procedures –
- Neurological examination – The neurological examination includes- checking of hearing, vision, strength, coordination and reflexes. If the difficulty gets detected in one or more areas then it may provide a rough idea of which part of the brain has been affected by the tumor.
- Imaging Tests – Brain tumors are usually diagnosed with the help of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Sometimes even the additional imaging tests are performed such as positron emission tomography (PET) and computerized tomography (CT).
- Tests to detect cancer in other parts of the body – If the doctor suspects that the brain tumor has been formed by spreading from another part of the body then the tests will be conducted to detect the main part where the cancer has originated. The tests mainly include PET and CT scan.
What Are The Methods of Brain Tumor Treatment?
If the brain tumor has been formed in a place where it is possible to extract it through the method of surgery, then the surgeon will definitely prefer to go with this option. Decision of surgery basically depends on the size and location of the tumor. If the tumor is small in size and can be easily separated from the surrounding tissue then only a complete surgical removal can be done. If the tumor is located near a sensitive area then it can be risky to perform an intricate surgery, then the surgeon tries to remove as much of the tumor that is possible.
Radiation Therapy :
Radiation therapy uses X-rays or protons which are high-energy beams that are projected directly on the tumor cells to kill them.
In Stereotactic radiosurgery, multiple beams of radiation are projected on the tumor cells formed in a very small area. It is not very powerful when being released but on the point where it is aimed on the tumor cells, that area receives large dose of constant radiation which kills the cells.
and hearing functionalities.
In chemotherapy a specific set of drugs are used to destroy the tumor cells. These drugs are either administered orally in form of pill or directly injected in the veins of the patient. The most common drugs that are used in chemotherapy treatment are temozolomide, which is taken in the form of pill.
Targeted drug therapy :
Targeted drug therapy focuses on the specific form of abnormalities which can be found in the cancer cells. By putting a blockage on those abnormalities altogether the cancer cells can die.
Cost of Brain Tumor Surgery & Recovery Time
Once the brain tumor has been removed successfully, patient takes time to completely recover and the hospital stay lasts up to 3 to 4 days. It might take around few months for the patient to completely regain the normal energy level.
The average cost of brain tumor surgery in India ranges somewhere in between $6000 USD to $7500 USD. Price depends on choice of hospital and type of hospital room chosen.